Causes of skin blemishes and treatment methods

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Added On: 11 May 2020, Monday, 08:49
Last Edited On: 15 May 2020, Friday, 08:17

Causes of skin blemishes and treatment methods
Asst. Prof. Dr. Didem Mullaaziz, specialist doctor at the Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases of Near East University Hospital, states that melanin, which is produced within the skin in cells called melanocytes, is the main determinant of the skin color. She underlines that any increase in the melanocyte function due to diseases or external factors causes skin blemishes. Reminding that there are many treatment methods allowing the removal of skin blemishes, Assistant Professor Doctor Didem Mullaaziz highlights the crucial role of using sunscreens every season to protect against UV rays, which play a major role in the formation and progression of skin blemishes. She underlines that the products to be used differ accordingly to the skin type, dermatological findings and age and draws attention the crucial role of selecting the products that protect the skin from both UVB and UVA rays and have a cosmetically acceptable structure. She underlines that products with broad spectrum protection against both UVA and UVB rays and with sun protection factor (SPF) values of 30 or higher are recommended. She highlights the importance of reapplying the product at least every 4-5 hours to maintain protection.

Skin spots known as mask of pregnancy
Expressing that melasma, which is also known as mask of pregnancy among public, is a skin disease which is much more common in women than men, Assistant Professor Doctor Didem Mullaaziz states that 90 percent of people who develop melasma are women. She underlines that people with darker skin tones are more likely to develop melasma, as they have more melanocytes than people with lighter skin. Expressing that melasma causes irregular brown patches on the areas of the body, especially those exposed to a lot of sunlight such as the forearms, the neck and face, Specialist Doctor Didem Mullaaziz underlines that the bridge of the nose, the forehead, the cheeks and the upper lip are the most common areas on the face for melisma to appear. “Birth control pills, pregnancy, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, use of cosmetic products and hormone therapy can all trigger melasma. Treatment options include sunscreens as well as various anti-stain serum or creams, chemical peeling, derma-therapy, PRP, and meso-therapy procedures” noted she.

Freckles become more noticeable in the summer season
Highlighting that sunspots and freckles look very alike, Asst. Prof. Dr. Didem Mullaaziz notes that they have different characteristics. Expressing that sunspots are observed in middle or advanced age patients with lighter skin color and long term sun exposure, Assistant Professor Doctor Didem Mullaaziz notes that these spots are flat brown, black spots with a diameter of 0.5 – 1.5 cm that develop on the face, on the back of the hand, on arms and shoulders. She underlines that sunspots don’t pose any health risk and can be removed by using several treatment methods including cryotherapy (freezing therapy), chemical peeling and laser skin resurfacing. Expressing that freckles are smaller spots with several mm in diameter that especially develop on the face, hand back, forearm and upper body of people with light skin and hair color, Asst. Prof. Dr. Didem Mullaaziz notes that freckles, which can also be inherited, become more apparent in the summer due to exposure to more sunlight. She highlights that freckles may diminish or fade away in the winter.

Photoallergic reactions caused by the effect of the drugs taken orally or the creams applied topically
Expressing that exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun changes the structure of the drug taken orally or the topical medication applied locally, Assistant Professor Doctor Didem Mullaaziz states that a photoallergic reaction can occur when a person’s immune system is sensitive to a specific ingredient of the medication. She notes that contact with the leaves or extracts of some plants and exposure to sunlight may cause photoallergic reactions due to hyperpigmentation in the skin. She highlights that photoallergic reactions cause damage in the skin by developing reddening and swelling and sometimes fluid accumulation.

Protect yourself from UV rays of the sunlight if you have undergone chemical peeling
Expressing that chemical peeling is a skin resurfacing procedure, which can be performed at different depths – light, medium or deep – to remove skin blemishes, Asst. Prof. Dr. Didem Mullaaziz states that chemical peeling procedure should be done only in winter period and one should avoid unprotected sun exposure.

The use of skin color lightening products is of importance
Expressing that products with a lightening or peeling feature can be used to treat skin blemishes, Assistant Professor Doctor Didem Mullaaziz notes that hydroquinone, ascorbic acid, azelaic acid or kojic acid are used for lightening the color of the dark patches on the skin while fruit acids and retinoic acid derivatives are used for their peeling properties. She draws attention to the importance of using such products only in the winter period and only at night.

Prefer winter period for laser treatment!
Expressing that normal cells aren’t affected by the laser radiation while cells containing melanin pigments that cause skin blemishes absorb the the beam during the laser treatment, Assistant Professor Doctor Didem Mullaaziz says winter period should be preferred as the procedure time and a special importance should be attached on the treatment of the people with dark skin color.

Cryotherapy for removing the sunspots
Stating that the cryotherapy is a treatment procedure used to remove sunspots and other skin lesions by freezing them off with a liquid nitrogen solution, Asst. Prof. Dr. Didem Mullaaziz underlines that cryotherapy is a simple and generally well-tolerated method taking a few minutes. Expressing that the treated area may become red soon after the procedure and it may also blister and swell or develop dark crusts, she underlines that the treated area heals in about 2 weeks upon the formation of new skin tissue.

The main factors that trigger the formation of skin blemishes:

  • Genetic factors
  • Hormonal factors
  • Ultraviolet rays
  • Some diseases
  • Some medications
  • Misuse of cosmetic products