The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is a student-centred credit system based on the student's workload. It was originally established for credit transfer under the Erasmus programme. This system was initiated as a method for transferring the credits that students receive during their education abroad as credits that count towards the education programme they continue after returning to their home university.
ECTS credits are calculated for each course, taking into account the workload of the student (1 ECTS = 25 hours of study) as stated in the ECTS catalogue, and a total of 60 ECTS for full-time work in an academic year. The credits of the courses specified in the ECTS Course Catalogue and the credits of the courses taken in the exchange programme are automatically recognized.
The workload, which is the basis of the ECTS credit system, includes all activities such as course participation, seminars and practices, homework, projects, presentations, term project preparation, exam preparation and participation, etc.
In order to calculate the ECTS credits of a course, the learning outcomes as well as the objectives of the course are determined by the lecturer and the average workload required for the successful completion of the course is thus calculated. The proposed ECTS credits are evaluated by a commission in each academic unit, taking into account the programme outcomes and the national certification framework, so that the estimated workload is expressed in credits. The workload assessment is regularly updated in line with continuous monitoring and student feedback. ECTS credits of courses offered to more than one academic unit are evaluated by a university-level commission.
In accordance with the ECTS logic, each study (course, internship, term project, graduation project, thesis, etc.) in a programme is credited according to the workload it requires. The results obtained by the student are given in a local grade scale compatible with the ECTS grade scale. The credit score of a course is calculated by multiplying the credit of that course with the grade received from that course. The Grade point average (GPA) of a graduate student is calculated by dividing the sum of the credit points of all courses taken by the student by the total ECTS credits.
WHAT IS AN ECTS CREDIT?
An ECTS credit is a unit that is comprised of all of the work (theoretical course, practice, seminar, individual study, exams, assignments, etc.) that a student must do in order to successfully complete a course.
*ECTS is a student-centred system based on the student workload required to achieve the purpose of a programme. While explaining the aims of the programme, the learning outcomes and skills (qualifications) to be gained should be stated.
Learning Outcomes(LO)= Skills set: It is a list of what the student will know, understand and be able do after completing the process of learning.
Student Workload: It is the load given considering the time required to complete the planned learning activities. This load consists of the sum of the duration of the lectures (theoretical lectures), laboratory, practice, seminars, independent or private study, project preparation and exams.
- In ECTS, 60 credits are given for one academic year (two semesters) education and 30 credits for one semester (semester or semester).
- Students graduate with a total of 240 ECTS credits at the end of four years of education.
- The ideal calculation method is to measure the total time students have spent on any course. Thus, the total workload calculated separately for each of the courses that students have to take in a semester is considered as 30 ECTS (one-semester credit amount), and the ECTS corresponding to each course is determined within the total workload. It is extremely important to ensure the participation of students with surveys in calculating the total workload of the courses.
- In short, ECTS credit is a number indicating how much study the relevant course requires, relative to the total study time required to complete an academic year full-time in any higher education institution.
Why does ECTS exist?
ECTS allows inter-institutional equivalence and credit transfer processes in terms of showing the equivalent of learning outcomes in a higher education programme in another national or international university. In fact, the ECTS application provides transparency and recognition at the international level. The main foundations of ECTS are as follows:
- Determination of student workload
- Providing quality assurance
- Credit transfer
- Increasing mobility
- Opportunity for integration in education