Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

PGE 501 Advanced Engineering Mathematics
PGE 502 Advanced Geothermal Reservoir Engineering
PGE 503 Research Methods for Engineers
PGE 504 Advanced Well Test Analysis
PGE 505 Advanced Natural Gas Engineering
PGE 506 Natural Gas Processing and Facilities
PGE 507 Advanced Reservoir Engineering
PGE 508 Special Topics in Petroleum Engineering
PGE 509 Advanced Thermodynamics
PGE 510 Chemistry in Geothermal Engineering
PGE 511 Advanced Drilling Engineering
PGE 512 Underground Storage of Natural Gas
PGE 513 Reservoir Characterization
PGE 514 Well Completion Design
PGE 515 Advanced Production Engineering
PGE 516 Numerical Reservoir Simulation
PGE 517 Petrophysics
PGE 518 Advanced Enhanced Oil Recovery Process
PGE 519 Advanced Mass Transfer
PGE 520 Reservoir Management
PGE 521 Phase Behavior of Petroleum Fluids
PGE 522 Optimization of Petroleum Recovery Process
PGE 523 Exploration Geology
PGE 524 Non Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
PGE 525 Rock Mechanics
PGE 526 Advanced Petroleum Geochemistry
PGE 527 Formation Damage: Mechanisms and Remediation
PGE 528 EOR Methods -Thermal
PGE 529 Advanced Well Control and Design
PGE 530 Advanced Oil and Gas Pipeline System
PGE 531 Advanced Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs
PGE 532 Design of Field Processing Systems
PGE 533 Reservoir Geology and Reserves /Resources Assessment
PGE 534 Offshore Production of Oil and Gas
PGE 535 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
PGE 536 Multiphase Flow in Pipes and Annulus
PGE 537 Advanced Formation Evaluation
PGE 538 Advanced Special Operations in Drilling
PGE 539 Subsea Pipeline Systems
PGE 540 Geological Interpretation of Seismic Data
PGE 541 Oil and Gas Production Problems
PGE 542 Flowing Wells and Artificial Lift Systems
PGE 543 Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling
PGE 544 Offshore Drilling
PGE 545 Sedimentary Systems
PGE 546 Advanced Petroleum Geology
PGE 547 Advanced Borehole Logging
PGE 548 Advanced Geochemistry
PGE 597 Masters Project
PGE 598 Master Thesis
PGE 599 Seminar


  • PGE 507 Advanced Reservoir Engineering
  • PGE 516 Numerical Reservoir Simulation
  • PGE 504 Well Testing (Advanced Well Test Analysis)
  • PGE 535 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
  • PGE 537 Advanced Formation Evaluation
  • PGE 518 Enhanced Oil Recovery Process
  • PGE 597 Masters Project
  • PGE 598 Master Thesis PGE 599 Seminar


  • PGE 515 Advanced Production Engineering
  • PGE 530 Flowing Wells and Artificial Lift Systems
  • PGE 532 Design of Field Processing Systems
  • PGE 541 Oil and Gas Production Problems
  • PGE 534 Offshore Production of Oil and Gas
  • PGE 539 Subsea Pipeline Systems
  • PGE 597 Masters Project
  • PGE 598 Master Thesis
  • PGE 599 Seminar


  • PGE 511 Advanced Drilling Engineering
  • PGE 529 Advanced Well Design and Control
  • PGE 538 Advanced Special Operations in Drilling
  • PGE 536 Multiphase Flow in Pipes and Annulus
  • PGE 543 Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling
  • PGE 544 Offshore Drilling
  • PGE 597 Masters Project
  • PGE 598 Master Thesis
  • PGE 599 Seminar


  • PGE 523 Exploration Geology
  • PGE 540 Geological Interpretation of Seismic Data
  • PGE 545 Sedimentary Systems
  • PGE 546 Advanced Petroleum Geology
  • PGE 547 Advanced Borehole Logging
  • PGE 548 Advanced Geochemistry
  • PGE 597 Masters Project
  • PGE 598 Master Thesis
  • PGE 599 Seminar
PGE 501 Advanced Engineering Mathematics (3 Credit)
Linear Algebra: Matrices, Vectors, Determinants, Linear Systems, Matrix Eigenvalue Problems, Simple Differential Equations (SDEs): First-Derivative SDEs, Second-Derivative Linear SDEs, High-Derivative Linear SDEs, SDEs’ Systems, Solutions of SDEs’ with Series. Special Functions. The Laplace transformation. Fourier Analysis: Series, Integrals, and Transformations. Partial Differential Equations Special Functions. The Laplace transformation. Fourier Analysis: Series, Integrals, and Transformations. Partial Differential Equations.

PGE 502 Advanced Geothermal Reservoir Engineering (3 Credit)
Advanced geothermal reservoir engineering, classification of reservoirs depending on thermodynamic and fluid phase behavior, fluid content and phase properties. Estimation of energy production from reservoirs. Calculation of in-well temperature, pressure and enthalpy distribution for production and injection wells. Repressing the reservoirs. Modeling of field production performance. Renewability and sustainability for geothermal fields.

PGE 503 Research Methods for Engineers (3 Credit)
The course defines the understanding of science and engineering and defines the links between related technical subjects. It focuses on scientific research methods and compares experimental methods, field studies and research methods. It also includes integrated research methods, an important aspect of writing the research proposal, and presenting and reporting the results of the research. The course also provides brief information on the research ethics.

PGE 504 Advanced Well Test Analysis (3 Credit)
Basis of well pressure tests and analysis; injection/falloff and drawdown/buildup tests.; Derivation of flow equations in porous media and solving with various initial and boundary conditions; Interference test; Modeling of in-well storage and near-well membrane effects; Classical analysis methods (curve fitting and correct fitting analysis methods); Modern analysis methods (pressure-derivative and pressure-integral methods, computer aided curve fitting methods); Space and time superposition (modeling of the effects of enterprise, boundary effects and variable debide production); Examination of flow regimes for vertical wells in homogeneous reservoir systems with unrestricted and limited (outer boundaries constant pressure or closed flow); Convolution and Deconvolution; Gas well tests; DST tests; A brief look at the analysis of well tests in complex well / reservoir systems (horizontal wells, natural cracked wells).

PGE 505 Advanced Natural Gas Engineering (3 Credit)
Physical and thermodynamic properties of dry, wet and reversible natural gases, phase behavior and steam -liquid balance. Sampling methods of natural gas. Natural gas hydrates. Choice of gas compressors. Bottom pressure estimation and fluid accumulation in closed and open deep gas wells. The flow of gases through the reservoir. Tests made in gas wells and types and resolution of decay curves.

PGE 506 Natural Gas Processing and Facilities (3 Credit)
Overview of Gas Plant Processing. Field Operations and Inlet Receiving. Gas Treating. Gas Dehydration. Hydrocarbon Recovery. Nitrogen Rejection. Trace Components Removal and Sulfur Recovery. Transportation and Storage. Liquefied Natural Gas.

PGE 507 Advanced Reservoir Engineering (3 Credit)
Error analysis in calculations. Identification of reservoir parameters. Reservoir pressure, average techniques for porosity and permeability. Fluid flow in reservoirs: Unsteady flow, semi-steady flow and steady flow principles. Approximate solutions for fluid flow problems. Pressure performance for oil wells. Diffusivity equation and solution, applications to two- and multi-well problems. Injection flow for depleted and liquid-filled reservoirs.

PGE 508 Special Topics in Petroleum Engineering (3 Credit)
In oil, natural gas and geothermal energy issues, selected topics in master’s level will be processed; The content of the course will be determined by the teaching lecturer. Possible course content may include current research in oil, natural gas and geothermal energy issues, advanced engineering, economics and legal legislation.

PGE 509 Advanced Thermodynamics (3 Credit)
General phase behavior of oil and natural gas systems; First and second laws; Thermodynamic processes; Mass and energy balance for open systems; PVT behavior of pure components; Equivalent status law; State equations; Z-factor, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity correlations for vapor pressures, hydrocarbon gases; Basic property relations for homogenous phases; Methods of calculation of waste properties, Joule-Thomson effect; Simple models for VLE; Basic property relations for mixtures, chemical potential and phase balance, partial properties; Definition of fugacity and fugacity coefficient; Ideal mixture models; Modeling of vapor-liquid equilibrium; CCE, CVD and differential evaporation processes.

PGE 510 Chemistry in Geothermal Engineering (3 Credit)
Creative chemical engineering solutions for exploiting geothermal energy. Resource development and management, energy extraction and use, power cycle design and optimization, environmental engineering and equipment corrosion and scaling.
PGE 511 Advanced Drilling Engineering (3 Credit)
A further study of drilling hydrology, including geological models. Computer modeling of various flow problems related to flow in drilling operations and investigation of measurement technology during drilling. Light mud drilling techniques and application. Examination of drilling water in deep water. Estimation and verification of formation pore pressures; Formation cracking resistance prediction and verification. Horizontal and directional wells.

PGE 512 Underground Storage of Natural Gas (3 Credit)
The current status of natural gas and underground storage facilities in the world and Turkey. Properties and transmission of natural gas. Reasons for underground storage. The need for natural gas storage in Turkey. Grade-Day method for estimation of gas consumption in residential heating. Upper and underground storage methods. Storage in porous media, aquifer and salt domes. Warehouse design and modeling. The operation of underground storage sites in Turkey. New research on underground storage.

PGE 513 Reservoir Characterization (3 Credit)
Identification of heterogeneity in oil reservoirs by conventional methods and possible improvements of these methods. Basic statistical concepts and methods to be watched. Evaluation of Reservoir Rocks and Fluid Properties by Statistical Methods. Preparing Scaler and Simulator Data. New Methods in the Characterization of Oil Reservoirs. Sample field studies from the petroleum industry.

PGE 514 Well Completion Design (3 Credit)
Completion operations without producing oil, gas and geothermal wells. In the course of completion design, open, storage pipe well completion, all cement operations, storage pipe, balanced, repair, volume calculation methods and techniques of injected cement are explained. It also describes the properties of wells used for secondary production such as hydrocarbon gas, water, wastewater, carbon dioxide, or for the purpose of submitting landings to be disposed of. Cement mix preparation techniques. The chemistry tests the cement tests. Well excitation techniques, acid operations, HF, HCl, mud acid operations are some of the main topics of the course.

PGE 515Advanced Production Engineering (3 Credit)
Basic phase behaviors and fluid properties of hydrocarbon fluids; Flow performance in saturated, unsaturated and multi-layered reservoirs; Flow performance in horizontal and inclined wells; Production optimization with a systematic node analysis; Multi-phase flow and flow regimes in production systems, correlations; Estimation methods of time dependent production change; Separation of oil and natural gas on the surface.

PGE 516 Numerical Reservoir Simulation (3 Credit)
Basic reservoir engineering and mathematical concepts required in simulation; Derivation of basic equations which define fluid flow in porous media (continuity, diffusivity equation); Numerical methods that can be used in solving initial-boundary value problems (finite differences); Sieve systems (point and block centered grid systems); Explicit and implicit methods; Various applications in which students can develop their own flow simulators during the course and compare them with the commercial simulators available in the departmental computer lab.

PGE 517 Petrophysics (3 Credit)
Porosity, surface area and roughness, particle and pore size and distribution, compressibility, electrical, acoustic, mechanical, magnetic, radiation etc. of porous and permeable rocks and their solubility with gases, hydrocarbon fluids and water-based solutions, interfacial surface, saturation, capillarity, absorption, permeability, flow, etc. concepts, theories, laboratory and field measurement methods.

PGE 518 Advanced Enhance Oil Recovery Process (3 Credit)
Advanced oil recovery (EOR) methods and factors affecting them. Chemical methods (polymer, alkali, alkali / polymer, fine polymer injection). High pressure gas processes (carbon dioxide gas and hydrocarbon gas injection). Heat methods (steam injection and on- site combustion). Properties of injection, reservoir fluids and reservoir rocks. Field experiences and business problems.

PGE 519 Advanced Mass Transfer (3 Credit)
Diffusion, Fick’s propagation law. Stable molecular diffusivity in fluids under steady and laminate flow conditions. Diffusion with variable cross-sectional area. Diffusion coefficient: measurement and estimation. Measurement of the liquid phase diffusion coefficient. Multi- component diffusion. Diffusivity and applications in participation. Mass transfer coefficients. Mass transfer theories.

PGE 520 Reservoir Management (3 Credit)
Introduction to the petroleum industry economy, including estimation and classification of reserves, creating and using reservoir models, developing and using reservoir management processes, managing new and mature fields, and investment ordering and selection are planned. The fundamentals of reservoir management and its application to specific reservoirs are based on field analyzes presented in the oil literature. Reservoir management can be applied to a hydrocarbon reservoir based on a specific financial and contractual basis in order to efficiently perform field operations and maximize the economic outcome of investments, reduce risk, increase oil and gas production, increase oil and gas reserves, methods of minimizing operating costs are taught.

PGE 521 Phase Behavior of Petroleum Fluids (3 Credit)
Classification of hydrocarbons forming oil and natural gas; Classification of reservoir fluids according to their phase behavior; Production characteristics of oil and natural gas; Physical property correlations; Composition analysis of oil and natural gas; Phase balance in gas-liquid hydrocarbon systems; Estimation of phase balance using state equations; Characterization of petroleum and natural gas fluids; Methods of lumping and splitting of heavy components in oil and gas reservoirs; Experimental methods used to determine PVT behavior; Modeling of the compositional change due to depth in oil reservoirs; Estimation of asphalt and wax formation.

PGE 522 Optimization of Petroleum Recovery Process (3 Credit)
Modern petroleum production engineering techniques for optimum production with vertical, horizontal and multi-directional / multi-channel wells. Performance evaluation of wells, logging of wells and production logs. Containing reliable and accurate data elements. The function of the production engineering is taught by applications on field with well design, best excitation and pump design.

PGE 523 Exploration Geology (3 Credit)
The origin and evolution of sedimentary basins, and their exploration potential will be discussed in terms of a petroleum system, made up of a source rock, reservoir rock, seal rock, and overburden rock, and comprising the processes of trap formation, as well as the generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons. The main exploration tools are presented, and the common approach to evaluate the required ingredients for the presence of oil and/or gas accumulations (trap, reservoir, seal and HC charge) will be discussed. The link between the typical development of different basin types (rift basins, deltas, deep water fold belts, carbonate provinces) with petroleum systems will be demonstrated with examples of oil and gas fields in several important petroleum provinces around the globe.

PGE 524 Non Newtonian Fluid Mechanics (3 Credit)
Differences between Newtonian and non-Newtonian behaviors. Time Independent and Time Dependent Non-Newtonian fluids, properties, laminar and turbulent flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Optimization of non-Newtonian fluid flow in pipelines.

PGE 525 Rock Mechanics (3 Credit)
The basics of engineering geology, global presentation of petroleum geology, data, rock properties and laboratory tests, classification of rock mass, strength and deformation characteristics of rocks, stability of rock slope, rock formations are taught in detail.

PGE 526Advanced Petroleum Geochemistry (3 Credit)
This course is the continuation of PGE426 Petroleum Geochemistry course. The main topic is; Detailed interpretation of biomarkers (steran, terpan) on the formation of oil, migration and accumulation in reservoirs. The second objective of the course is to interpret the data that will assist the production program on oilfields where multiple reservoir intervals are present.

PGE 527 Formation Damage: Mechanisms and Remediation (3 Credit)
Identification and development of solutions to damage mechanisms occurring after drilling, completion and chemical treatment; A comprehensive review of the various formation damage problems encountered in oil reservoirs. Factors and processes that cause these problems are elaborated. Understanding of the formation and teamwork design required for control.

PGE 528 EOR Methods—Thermal (3 Credit)
In heavy oil fields (<20 ° API) the recovery of primary and secondary production is usually 15% or less. These areas constitute 50% of the existing reserves. In Canada, Venezuela and the United States, there are heavy oil available to be produced by thermal methods. Thermal methods can be applied to any area under consideration and can compete with alternative methods. The importance of heavy oil or bituminous oil fields within thermal method applications. Maximum production with some technics such as steam, hot water and on-site combustion. The steam injection applications and on-site burning techniques. PGE 529 Advanced Well Control and Design (3 Credit)
The design and control of oil and gas wells in drilling operations is very important. The importance of well design applications. Well control methods are determined by the operating engineer in consideration of all conditions. Accident statistics show that most of the people who participate in the drilling or other well activities of the training benefit receive well control training. This course aims to determine the basics of the requirements and control procedures for the quench.

PGE 530 Advanced Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems (3 Credit)
Oil and Gas Pipelines and Piping Systems: Design, Construction, Management, and Inspection delivers all the critical aspects needed for oil and gas piping and pipeline condition monitoring and maintenance, along with tactics to minimize costly disruptions within operations. Broken up into two logical parts, the book begins with coverage on pipelines, including essential topics, such as material selection, designing for oil and gas central facilities, tank farms and depots, the construction and installment of transportation pipelines, pipe cleaning, and maintenance checklists.

PGE 531 Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs (3 Credit)
Structure and properties of porous media. The importance of size scale and continuity approach. The basics of Momentum, energy and mass transfer. Derivation of Navier-Stokes equation and Darcy rule. Momentum, energy and mass transfer in single and multi-phase flow through porous and cracked capillary environments. Filtration, diffusion and scattering in capillary environments. Fick’s law.

PGE 532 Design of Field Processing Systems (3 Credit)
In this course oilfield processing and handling of natural gas in a direct, easy-to-follow format is explained. Process descriptions, design methods, operating procedures and troubleshooting are covered in detail. Petroleum engineers will gain a better understanding of surface operations between the wellhead and the point of custody transfer or transport from the production facilities.

PGE 533 Reservoir Geology and Reserves /Resources Assessment (3 Credit)
Petroleum geology main concepts, Reservoirs / Basic Statistics for Resources Assessment and new SPE / WPC / AAPG / SPEE reservoirs / resources terminology / definitions.

PGE 534 Offshore Production of Oil and Gas (3 Credit)
An authoritative course providing extensive up-to-date coverage of the technology used in the exploration, drilling, production, and operations in an offshore setting. Offshore oil and gas activity is growing at an expansive rate and this must-have training guide covers the full spectrum including geology, types of platforms, exploration methods, production and enhanced recovery methods, pipelines, and environmental management and impact, specifically worldwide advances in study, control, and prevention of the industry’s impact on the marine environment and its living resources.

PGE 535 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (3 Credit)
This course covers geologic and engineering concepts, methodology, and technology used to characterize, evaluate, and manage naturally-fractured reservoirs. Applications and limitations of geologic and engineering procedures and tools are discussed. Field examples and case studies demonstrate the importance of integrated geologic and engineering studies in developing effective, economical reservoir management strategies for different types of reservoirs.

PGE 536 Multiphase Flow in Pipes and Annulus (3 Credit)
The objective of the course is to study the multi flow conditions in drilling and production applications. The attendees of the course are projected to be equipped with the respective pressure drop calculations in flow conditions during which more than one phase is present. Review of Basic Concepts. Introduction Multiphase Flow in Pipes and Annulus. Fundamental Phenomena in Multiphase Flow. General Models. Horizontal Flow. Stratified Flow Modelling. Vertical Flow. Flow Pattern Predictions in Vertical Flow. Inclined Flow. Literature Review in Foams Applications. Foams. Field Examples. Laboratory Applications. Multiphase flow in production operations.

PGE 537 Advanced Formation Evaluation (3 Credit)
This course will focus on petroleum and natural gas reservoir formation evaluation. The course topics include coring, “regular” core analysis, “special” core (SCAL) analysis, integrated core and well log-based analysis of formation resistivity, saturation, porosity, and lithology, advanced well logging and interpretation, stratigraphic, and structural (e.g. fracture) analysis, and spectral gamma ray logging for lithology and stratigraphy. Including image- based characterization of reservoir rocks and pore networks particularly for carbonate and shale reservoirs. Numerous case histories from a variety of reservoirs and reservoir development stages will be used throughout the course.

PGE 538 Advanced Special Operations in Drilling (3 Credit)
Coring; coring techniques. Fishing; differential sticking, freepoint detection, string-shot back- off taps and die collars, spears and overshoots, washover pipe, cutters, investigation of field case studies. Measurement while drilling techniques.

PGE 539 Subsea Pipeline Design (3 Credit)
As deep water wells are drilled to greater depths, pipeline engineers and designers are confronted with new problems such as water depth, weather conditions, ocean currents, equipment reliability, and well accessibility. This course provides rigorous coverage of the entire spectrum of subjects in the discipline, from pipe installation and routing selection and planning to design, construction, and installation of pipelines in some of the harshest underwater environments around the world. Besides, latest breakthroughs in subjects such as corrosion prevention, pipeline inspection, and welding, while offering an easy-to-understand guide to new design codes currently followed.

PGE 540 Geologic Interpretation of Seismic Data (3 Credit)
The course intends to introduce seismic evaluation techniques as applied in industry. Since the PETREL package is used in the practice sessions, an introduction into its use will be given, together with a concise hand-out. Knowledge of the seismic fundamentals is needed, including principal aspects of acquisition and processing techniques. After a brief introduction/recapitulation of acquisition and processing, evaluation techniques will be presented along the lines of a generic workflow, starting with the generation of synthetic seismograms and its use of calibrating the seismic data to wells. This is followed by an introduction into interpretation techniques and by a methodical treatment of different tectonic styles and their appearance on seismic. In addition, time will be spent on seismo-stratigraphic techniques and examples. Best-practice techniques will be discussed and rehearsed in the practical exercises for event identification and horizon and fault interpretation. Attention will be paid to time to depth conversion and well geophysics. Participants will be made aware of the principles of quantitative interpretation the effects of hydrocarbon fill. Finally, some novel techniques will be dealt with summarily.

PGE 541 Oil and Gas Production Problems (3 Credit)
Checking oil production is something that should be done on a regular schedule, if not daily. Each day of measurements adds to a record of production, which when taken as a whole can be an indicator of future oil production. In this course problems leading to overproduction, out of balance tank, problems leading to underproduction, line problems, separator problems, at the well and downhole, hse principles will be covered.

PGE 542 Flowing Wells and Artificial Lift Systems (3 Credit)
This course blends lecture, hands-on exercises, and seminar teaching styles to enhance learning. Students work with software that allows them to design and analyze artificial lift designs, which points the way to improved efficiency, higher production and less downtime due to failures. Students learn how to design and troubleshoot rod pumping, continuous gas lift, and electric submersible pump systems. Other methods such as PCP, plunger lift, jet pump, hydraulic pump, and intermittent gas lift are presented as viable AL techniques.

PGE 543 Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling (3 Credit)
The objective of this course is given to the students the details of drilling horizontal and multilateral wells. The completion, well logging, well test analysis of horizontal wells is also covered. The students are expected to work on home works and projects to make cost estimates and time estimation studies for the drilling and completion of horizontal wells. The students are expected to learn how horizontal wells are required to be drilled, how the completion design of multilateral wells is required to be. The well logging techniques applied in the course of drilling the horizontal wells are also in the scope of the learning outcomes. Geological Aspects. Drilling of Horizontal Wells. Completion of Horizontal Wells. Well Logging in Horizontal Wells. Survey Calculations. Multilaterals. Torque and Drag. Hole Cleaning. Cementing. Deviation Control. Reservoir Engineering Concepts in Horizontal Wells. Comparison of Horizontal and Fractured Vertical Wells. Transient Well Testing. Water and Gas Coning in Vertical and Horizontal Wells.

PGE 544 Offshore Drilling (3 Credit)
The course is designed to familiarize attendees with unique aspects of offshore operations, structures, and vessels, and how drilling rigs interact with them over the life of an asset. Different drilling rigs are analyzed, including bottom-supported and floating, mobile and fixed. Advantages and disadvantages of specific rig applications are considered when clarifying selection criteria, especially HSE performance, technical capabilities, and full-cycle efficiency. Identify differences between onshore and offshore operations. Clarify HSE and other risks associated with offshore operations (helicopter operations, boat operations, crane and deck operations, simultaneous operations, emergency response). Identify various styles and designs of marine risers, subsea and surface BOPs, wellheads and trees. Determine differences between various rig types and how they interact with offshore structures over the life of an asset (platform rigs, barge rig, jack up rig, semi-submersible, drillship). Identify operational effectiveness differences between various configurations of rig equipment, especially multiple activity centers. Specify rig selection criteria. Clarify logistical drivers for drilling and completion operations.

PGE 545 Sedimentary Systems (3 Credit)
Introduction to principles and applications of Sequence Stratigraphy. Discussion of fluvial, deltaic, shallow-marine, and deep marine siliciclastic systems, as well as a range of carbonate environments in a sequence-stratigraphic context. Discussion of the causes and effects of allogenic and autogenic perturbations on sedimentary systems. Application of sequence stratigraphy to problems of geological reservoir modelling and characterization.

PGE 546 Advanced Petroleum Geology (3 Credit)
This course gives an overview of the conditions that are necessary for oil and gas to accumulate in reservoirs. This is first illustrated in concepts and then in a few relevant case studies. The life of a reservoir is discussed from initial basin studies to exploration, appraisal development and finally abandonment. The task of the petroleum geologist during these various phases is illustrated, as well as his interaction with other disciplines such as reservoir engineering, geophysics, and petrophysics. Material on hand includes among others cores, logs and seismic lines.

PGE 547 Advanced Borehole Logging (3 Credit)
Measurements in boreholes to determine petrophysical parameters comprise several disciplines. We can distinguish between such techniques as Density logging (porosity assessment) Sonic logging (porosity) Gamma ray (shale volume) Neutron, pulsed neutron (porosity) Resistivity (saturation, Archies law) Spontaneous potential (shale volume) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Underlying physical principles are within the fields of acoustic and electromagnetic wave theory and solid state physics (radioactivity and relaxation phenomena). More specifically, wave equations for acoustic, elastic and poro-elastic media will be treated. Boundary conditions and reflection and transmission coefficients. Biot- Gassmann theory. Tortuosity and formation factor. Tube waves and Stoneley waves and their relation to formation permeability. The relation between acoustic and EM wave theory and the principles of MRI will be treated.

PGE 548 Advanced Geochemistry (3 Credit)
The course covers detailed distribution, abundance and behavior of various elements in different parts of the earth. How the earth formed and its relation to the other parts of the solar system. Other topics include abundance and behavior of elements in the earth, trace element and their analysis, mobility and migration of elements, fields where geochemistry has been applied, primary and secondary dispersion. Anomalies in rocks, overburden, water and vegetation. Principles of geochemical prospecting and geochemical techniques. Sampling strategies and contamination effects in drainage surveys. Detection limits and analytical geochemistry. Concepts, instrumentation and techniques of different analytical techniques. Statistical evaluation of data with practical.

PGE 597 Masters Project (0 Credit)
Application of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering theories and topics on paper for design. The master graduation project is chosen by the students and taken up after the approval of the relevant supervisor.

PGE 598 Master Thesis (0 Credit)
Program of research leading to M.S. degree, arranged between a student and the faculty member. Students register to this course in all semesters starting from the beginning of their third semester while the research program or write-up of the thesis is in progress. The MSc thesis is the development of research skills and the ability to analyze and present research results in a systematic and clear way. The thesis is the culmination of the MSc study program in which students show that they are able to design and conduct computer engineering research at an academic level, and are able to theoretically reflect on computer engineering topics.

PGE 599 Seminar (0 Credit)
This course will engage students in actual research in Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering. Graduate seminar is a written work on a specific topic prepared and orally presented by graduate students and assessed by the supervisor. The supervisor of the graduate seminar is the supervisor of the MS thesis. The topics covered in graduate seminar are the same that will be presented in MS thesis. Graduate seminar should cover several (3-4, or more) related scientific papers in a given area with some conclusions for a research that will be done in MS thesis.