Department of International Relations (Distance Learning, Master Degree)

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Message of the Programme Coordinator
Programme Description
The Department of International Relations aims to adopt the following vision and mission in accordance with those declared by the Faculty of Open and Distance Education. We are also carrying out a dedicated mission in conformity with the values and goals highlighted by the fundamental objectives and principles of the Near East University and of the Faculty of Open and Distance Education.
Mission
Our mission is to equip our students with the knowledge and skills on a broad intellectual spectrum.   Students can study theories of the discipline and improve their analytical skills and their decision-making ability as the international relations experts of future. Through a process of effective education provided for our privileged students, we aim to train students by developing their conceptual knowledge and skills in dealing with the issues in this field with ultimate success in the field of international relations.
Vision
Our vision is to be a leading model for all who seek intellectual vitality in a learner-centred and socially responsible academic community in international relations.

Message of the Programme Coordinator
Programme Description
The Department of International Relations aims to adopt the following vision and mission in accordance with those declared by the Faculty of Open and Distance Education. We are also carrying out a dedicated mission in conformity with the values and goals highlighted by the fundamental objectives and principles of the Near East University and of the Faculty of Open and Distance Education.
Mission
Our mission is to equip our students with the knowledge and skills on a broad intellectual spectrum.   Students can study theories of the discipline and improve their analytical skills and their decision-making ability as the international relations experts of future. Through a process of effective education provided for our privileged students, we aim to train students by developing their conceptual knowledge and skills in dealing with the issues in this field with ultimate success in the field of international relations.
Vision
Our vision is to be a leading model for all who seek intellectual vitality in a learner-centred and socially responsible academic community in international relations.

Compulsory Courses

Semester: 1

E/C Course Name T P L T ECTS
C Basic Concepts in IR 3 0 0 4 6
C Theories of IR 3 0 0 4 6
C Research Methods 3 0 0 4 6
C Leadership 3 0 0 4 6
C Global Problems and Security 3 3 4 4 6
·         E:Elective   C: Compulsory
·         Total credit of the term: 15
·         Total ECTS credit: 30
·         One elective
E/C Course Name T P L T ECTS
C Seminar: Research Methods 3 0 0 4 8
C Foreign Policy Analysis 3 0 0 4 8
E 3 0 0 3 6
E 3 0 0 3 6
E 3 0 0 3 6
·         E:Elective   C: Compulsory
·         Total credit of the term: 17
·         Total ECTS credit: 34
·         Three electives

LIST OF THE ELECTICE AND COMPULSORY COURSES

ELECTIVE COURSES

E/C Course Name T P L T ECTS
E Modern Diplomacy 3 0 0 3 6
E World Economics 3 0 0 3 6
E Political History 3 0 0 3 6
E New Approaches in International Relations 3 0 0 3 6
E Current Issues in International Politics 3 0 0 3 6
E Comparative Foreign Policy Analysis 3 0 0 3 6
E History of European Integration 3 0 0 3 6
E Conflict and Conflict Resolution 3 0 0 3 6
E Peace Research 3 0 0 3 6
E Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict 3 0 0 3 6
E International Migration 3 0 0 3 6
E American Foreign Policy 3 0 0 3 6
E Russian Foreign Policy 3 0 0 3 6
E Politics in the EU 3 0 0 3 6
E Society and Politics in Eurasia 3 0 0 3 6
E Minorities and Minority Rights 3 0 0 3 6
E Society and Politics in the Middle East 3 0 0 3 6
E History of the Balkans 3 0 0 3 6
E Society and Politics in the Balkans 3 0 0 3 6
E International Politics in Central and Eastern Europe 3 0 0 3 6
E Society and Politics in Latin America 3 0 0 3 6
E Society and Politics in Africa 3 0 0 3 6
E Human Rights 3 0 0 3 6
E International Security 3 0 0 3 6
E International Law 3 0 0 3 6
E International Organizations 3 0 0 3 6
E Theory of Democracy 3 0 0 3 6
E International Management 3 0 0 3 6
E International Trade and Finance 3 0 0 3 6
E International Systems 3 0 0 3 6
E Comparative Political Systems 3 0 0 3 6
E Comparative Constitutional Studies 3 0 0 3 6
E Contemporary Political Ideologies 3 0 0 3 6
E Globalization and Politics 3 0 0 3 6
E Postmodernism Debates 3 0 0 3 6
E Global Development 3 0 0 3 6
E History of Social Movements and Revolutions 3 0 0 3 6
E Local Politics>Local Politics”>Local Politics 3 0 0 3 6
E Environmental Issues>Environmental Issues”>Environmental Issues 3 0 0 3 6
E Theories of State 3 0 0 3 6
E Gender and Politics 3 0 0 3 6
E Social Change and Cities 3 0 0 3 6
E Media and IR 3 0 0 3 6
E International Political Economy 3 0 0 3 6
E Terrorism 3 0 0 3 6
E International Communications 3 0 0 3 6

Contents of the Compulsory and Elective Courses

Basic Concepts in IR
The aim of this course is to organize what is known about basic concepts in IR and theorized about IR; encourage critical thinking; and analysis of the world events.

Research Methods
This course aims to introduce graduate students what is social research, what are the different types of research and the research process. In assisting students how to decide on a research topic, it covers practical suggestions on how to carry out literature review and develop research questions. The course also focuses on data collection and alternative research methods. Academic rules, principles and research ethics are also fundamentals of this teaching. Finally it incorporates data analysis and effective report/thesis writing.

Theories of IR
The course aims at providing an overview of how International Relations as a discipline discusses and understands the international system. In part the course will give a brief historical account of theoretical development within International Relations and develops an understanding of the nature of social science theory from a non-positivist understanding. In the second part we are going to discuss six theoretical approaches. In the third part we are going to read original sources of some of the theories discussed in the second part.

Leadership
The course aims to present a broad understanding of the concept of leadership by discussing essays of 13 scholars from different disciplines and with different areas of expertise. It includes the most important historical, psychological, anthropological, political, organizational, sociological, and philosophical perspectives on leadership issues.

Global Problems and Security 
This course is to build conceptual, historical, theoretical and methodological framework of the contemporary security studies at an advanced level. The course will assist the master students to generate an original a functioning and consistent notional, methodological and practical skills to comprehend and discuss the specific cases in the changing environment of global security. The students are expected to develop an original ideational stance to assess multifaceted aspects of the global security issues, structures, and processes in world security affairs. In this respect, the course will elaborate on new approaches and issues in the new world security framework. Therefore, it will analyze various sectors of security such as military, human, environmental, societal, political and economic security in international relations at various levels of analyses. The course is composed of the lectures, critical assessment of readings, written assignments and other coursework through interactive online discussions.

Foreign Policy Analysis
This course focuses on the ways and methods of thinking critically about foreign policy analysis. With the help of historical as well as current examples from world affairs, the course analyze various theoretical approaches to foreign policy – making. Thus this course will enable students to assess the multidimensional issues that foreign policy makers face and solve. During the course sessions the students are expected to analyze the multiple reasons that affect the inter–state and international relations through the theoretical and practical knowledge that are presented to them. Levels of analysis such as individuals’ decision – makers, decision–making within the teams, the interdependence between the domestic policies and foreign policies will be main topics of this course.

Modern Diplomacy
During the course, after a short sight at the history of diplomacy since the medieval age, special attention is given to the evolution of “nation state” in Europe and the emergence of diplomatic concepts and tools (such as public diplomacy, summitry) as expedient ways for conducting international relations in modern age.

World Economy
The main themes of the course are: impacts of the globalization on the world economy; the economic impacts of the multinational companies on the less developed countries; the importance of the agricultural economics in the world economy International trade, economy, transportation, and technology transfers; the economic characteristics of less developed countries; and the important relations of the international economics and politics.

Political History
The course deals with the political history of the world. The main political, economic and social movements and changes in the history and their consequences are discussed.

New Approaches in International Relations
This course aims at teaching the students new approaches and trends in the theory of international relations and discusses them on existing problematic cases.

Current Issues in International Politics
Borders, migration, environment, war, peace, dependence and interdependence, global governmentality, regionalism, terrorism, human rights, humanitarian intervention, poverty, development, micro nationalism, security, … These topics are the main themes of this cours which will be broadly and deeply will be analyzed and discussed.

Comparative Foreign Policy Analysis
In this course, existing debates in foreign policy in international relations will be discussed from a broad theoretical and conceptual framework with a comparative perspective.

History of European Integration
The main aim of the course is to explore the European Union and try to understand the roots on which they evolved, the reasons why they came together, how it works with its different institutions, what are the relations among them, how the formation procedure of the policies is and what is the importance of different actors.

Conflict and Conflict Resolution
This is a research and writing seminar, focused on the sources, nature and politics of ethnic conflict, beginning with an exploration of alternative analytical perspectives on these issues. Within this framework, the possible local and international interventions that can assist in preventing, managing and resolving such conflicts will be explored. It is designed to introduce the students to academic thinking about conflict analysis and resolution and to help them to think systematically and analytically about conflict and conflict resolution.

Peace Research
Peace-making and peace-keeping have been the most popular themes of international politics for two decades. In this course, key issues in peace research such as conflict prevention, peace-building, causes of war, conflict diplomacy, non-violent sanctions, peace agreements, ending armed conflict are examined and cases of peace building endeavors are discussed.

Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict
Nationalism became one of the foremost ideologies that deeply affected the 19th and 20th Centuries. The most important specialty of nationalism was the display of different political functions in different geographical areas. In this lesson we shall look into the historical development and the political functions of nationalism in Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, as well as in the Developing Countries. An analysis will be made of ethnic conflicts that were the product of nationalism in various areas.

International Migration
The states and the migrants as the main actors of international migration, the historical background of it, the causes, economic, political and legal challenges in international migration, the legal situation of migrants today, refuges and the relations between international migration and international relations will be in the interest of this course. It is aimed to give a perspective to the students about the importance of the migration in today’s world and in the future. Why states give so much effort to control their borders and how successful they are and could they be successfully controlling their borders, are some of the questions that would like to be answered when the course is finished.

American Foreign Policy
The United States as one of the super powers during longer than one century has played a crucial role in framing and manipulating world politics. This course aims to study the policies the US pursued in world politics from founding to the present.

Russian Foreign Policy
This course aims at providing a general information about the history of Russian foreign policy before and during Cold War period, and then focus on continuity and change in Russian foreign policy after the Cold War it pursued towards the big actors of international politics such as US, European Union and China and also other regions and countries such as Middle East and Afghanistan.

Politics in the EU
This course is designed to provide knowledge about the major features of European institutions, integrations, policy making and major policies. The course assesses the structure, workings, and major domains of political activity of the European Union.

Society and Politics in Eurasia
The course is concerned with historical and cultural background of the region. The current political issues: Nationalist and religious movements are also discussed while focusing on foreign affairs of the newly independent states of the region (Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, etc.). The foreign policy orientations of the regional and global powers over Central Asia and Caucasus are also discussed.

Minorities and Minority Rights
The subject of minority rights, which first came up with the beginning of the Reformation Movement and the emergence of religious minorities and absolutist monarchies in the 16th century, today, has become one of the most important issues in international relations. This development has become a very vital issue for the Balkan countries, as these countries have huge minority population. The main aim of this course is to investigate the minority problems in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19thcentury today. The issues of minority & minority rights in the Balkan countries will be investigated within the framework of the domestic laws and international law will be discussed.

Society and Politics in the Middle East
The Middle East has always been one of the most problematic regions of the world from the past to the present day. Bearing this in mind, in this course effort will be made to identify the problems of the region, both internal as well as the external factors that played a role in the creation of these problems.

History of the Balkans
This course aims to examine political history of Balkans throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. In the first part of the course, erosion of Ottoman control over the Western Provinces and the emergence of new nation – states in Serbia, Rumania, Bulgaria and Albania will be analyzed. Within this context, influences of foreign powers like Russia (Pan – Slavism) and Austria – Hungary (Bosnia/Croatia) will be evaluated. The second part of this course deals with the role of Balkans in the upcoming of the First World War, and its aftermath in the region (Dissolution of Austria – Hungary/Foundation of Yugoslavia etc.). The third part will examine Balkans during the Second World War and in the following Cold War era. Finally, post – Cold War conflicts in Balkans, particularly in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, will be described.

Society and Politics in the Balkans
The aim of this course is to study political and cultural history of Balkan countries from a historical perspective on the one hand, and also to analyze the changes after the collapse of Eastern Bloc and its consequences in the regions’ states such as democratization, ethnicity, population mobility, political movements, and foreign policy from a comparative perspective.

International Politics in Central and Eastern Europe
As a result of the collapse of Eastern Block, many states in Central and Eastern Europe came into the stage of world politics. In this course, these countries will be examined in the themes of democratization, economic transition, cultural change, ethnicity and nationalism, foreign policy and EU membership from a comparative perspective.

Society and Politics in Latin America
Latin America has been one of the areas which had suffered from colonization, poverty, military regimes and political uprisings for centuries. In 21st century, the Latin American countries are drawing attention with their democratization process, growing economy and integration to the international capitalist system and globalization. However, it is also possible to observe anti-globalization movements, a tendency to technocratic democratic models and new demands alternative to neo-liberal policy. Those conflicting and controversial tendencies and developments are the main themes to be discussed in the course.

Society and Politics in Africa
This course aims at providing a general knowledge about social and political history of Africa; colonization process, struggle for independence, ethnic conflict, democratization, starvation, underdevelopment, population etc. This course also aims to deeply analyse selected case countries in the continent.

Human Rights
The subject of human rights has become, in the contemporary world, one of the most important factors in international relations. Proceeding from this fact, the historical development of human rights as well as the international human rights law to the present day will be studied. Within this context, mechanisms and their functions that were developed especially within the body of the United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union and Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe will be dwelt upon.

International Security
In this course, the current structure of the world politics is discussed. Before discussing the current structure, we will focus historical and theoretical debates on international politics. Moreover, we will study on nation state, national interest, national security and foreign policy concepts comparatively with alternative concepts: transnationalism, international security and economic cooperation etc.

International Law
An introduction to the study of Public Law of Treaties, the concept of personality and statehood, Recognition of states and governments, the relationship between International Law and Municipal Law, Jurisdiction over persons, and Acquisition of Sovereignty over Territory, Airspace and Aircraft are the main themes of this course. This course also examines some aspects of Public International Law namely the Immunities of State and Individuals, the Law of the Sea, the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, and use of Armed Force in International Relations, State Responsibility and an outline of Human Rights Law.

International Organizations
The aim of this course is to inform the students about the functions and roles of international organizations in contemporary international relations. In this course, international system and theories of international relations are also discussed.

Theory of Democracy
This course offers the knowledge of various schools of democratic theory. It aims to focus on contemporary debates on democratic theory and models of democracy such as deliberative democracy, radical democracy i.e. Critics of liberal democracy, political participation, political agent, public sphere, models of pluralism are the main topics of the course.

International Management
In this course management theories and practices are discussed from an international perspective.

International Trade and Finance
Key concepts of international trade and finance such as risk, risk management, negotiating, bonds, guarantees, methods of payment, finance alternatives, insurance will be studied and the students will be equipped with necessary information about financing and managing cross-border transaction.

International Systems
The aim of this course is to provide an overview of the evolution of the international system with particular emphasis on the shifting pattern of behaviour and relations among the great powers. It introduces the students to the analysis of international systems and explores the systemic level conditions as explanations of international politics and foreign policy. The course will focus on four basic systems: (1) The classical international system (1648-1789) (2) The transitional system (1789-1945) (3) The Cold War System (1945-1989) (4) Post Cold war system (1989-present).

Comparative Political Systems
The Institutions of Government, Elections and Electoral Systems, Political Parties, Interest Groups, Presidential and Parliamentary Systems, Political Leadership, Bureaucracy and Administration, Revolution, International Relations, Environmental Politics, Politics and Religion: The rise of religion, and Nationalism.

Comparative Constitutional Studies
In this course, general principles of constitutionalism and stages of constitutional development in the world will be examined with its historical and contemporary examples from a comparative perspective.

Contemporary Political Ideologies 
This is an intensive course engaging students in a rigorous and critical overview of the basic theoretical principles and concepts underpinning structural and post-structural approaches to contemporary ideologies and focusing on the relevance of analysis methods. Ideologies are bodies of concepts, values and symbols which incorporate conceptions of both human beings and their societies. They indicate what is possible or impossible for humans to achieve; they review the reflections of human interaction, they define values which humans ought to reject or aspire to; and they have specific sets of views for economic, social and political life which will meet the needs or the interests of humans. Ideologies can also denote the ideas of a political party or human consciousness in general encompassing all beliefs.  Politics is inseparable from ideology.  Beside the other lots of things, ideologies also operate in countries all over the world. The course is to offer students an overview of the most important scholarly debates about the structure of ideologies that have had a shaping impact on the contemporary world. The goal of this course is to understand the fundamental alternative political ideologies or theories, which have shaped our world and to consider how political theories may shape our world in the future. As we investigate these theories, we will consider how each of them addresses the most fundamental human questions: What is the best political society? What is the good life? What is the nature of human beings? And, in order to think about these political theories fairly and for ourselves, we will attempt to identify and to examine the most powerful arguments for and also against each of these theories. During this course, we draw on the work, among others, Marx, Gramsci, Athusser, Hayek, Polyani, Barthes, Laclau, Mouffe, Lacan, and Zizek et.al.

Globalization and Politics
Globalization is a rising phenomenon since the second half of 20th century. In this course existing definitions of globalization are examined and the multiple impacts and consequences of globalization in different areas such as economy, environment, citizenship, identity, nation-states, language and world politics are discussed. It is also aimed at to discuss anti-globalization movements and their possible impacts on the route of globalization process.

Postmodernism Debates 
This course analyzes the postmodernism debates through an examination of prominent figures. Sketching an outline of the historical development of postmodernism, the course focuses mainly on the postmodernist debates in social sciences, notably sociology, philosophy and politics. In the course, such thinkers as Jean Baudrillard, Fredric Jameson, Jean Foucault, Jean-François Lyotard and Jacques Derrida will be elaborated.

Global Development
The main themes of this course are development, wealth, poverty,distribution of income, technology, investment etc. In this course, the trends in changing wealth process and economic weight of developed and developing countries in the world economy are discussed.

History of Social Movements and Revolutions
In this course, significant social and political movements and revolutions in the world political history, their leaders, effects and their interrelation with other movements will be discussed.

Local Politics
Local politics is a topic which is growingly taking special attention of people and academic circles. The politics we do engage in our neighbors, towns and cities is a real-life politics. This course aims at providing a theoretical and conceptual framework to understand and analyze local politics.

Environmental Issues
Environmental problems are considered highly important and critical issues in international politics. This course studies the issues of primary importance between human and environment such as pollution, climate change, and usage of natural resources. In this course, it is also intended to touch on more complex aspects of environmental issues like biodiversity, sustainable development and urbanization.

Theories of State
The main aim of this course is to offer students an overview of the most important scholarly debates about the character of state. State formation may refer to nation building as a project of certain elites, or to the origins of apparatus of power called “the state”.  In this course, we will be examining the economic, social and political conditions shaping the contemporary state in international milieu and its changing relationship with the economy and democracy and the theories that seek to explain its development and the changing character. We will pay special attention to challenges of crises of capitalism, democratization, globalization and the emergence of new forms of governance which have led to a restructuring in the state’s power.

Gender and Politics
This course is concerned with main topics of gender and politics: history of feminism, women in public area, women and politics, women and representation, women and political parties, women and state. These topics will be discussed from a comparative perspective with a theoretical and conceptual framework.

Social Change and Cities
This course aims to define the phenomenon of social change and its relation to cities.  It provides both of the theoretical knowledge of social change referring to Weber, Marx and Durkheim, and the analysis of major role of cities in social change process. The urbanization process, the transformation of social institutions and structures, the difference between modern and postmodern cities, emergence of global cities are the main topics of the course.

Media and IR
This course is designed to provide students with a survey of important topics and trends on the current debate on the tensions between the media and democracy in the context of building and maintenance of a democratic culture.  The course is run as a text-centered seminar where students are expected to read and/or familiarize themselves with the material and to participate in class discussion.  Each week students are required to bring to class a short paper of about 300 words of their own original creative writing outlining one or more thoughts on the readings or linked to relevant issues familiar to them.

International Political Economy
International political economy (IPE) deals with the interaction of states and markets. States intervene in the market in order to change the distribution of production in geographic space organized by markets whereas markets continuously challenge given arrangements. In this course we will ask how this interaction was managed historically. Starting from a conceptual discussion of international political economy we will follow the rise of a global market society and territorial state building from the early European conquest of trade routes to the rise and decline of the British Empire and conclude the course with a discussion of the Pax Americana. The central question of this course will be how the relationship between the state and the (global) market was organized historically developing from colonialism to American hegemony. The course is of interest to students from economics, business and international relations who want to know more about the historical origin of globalization and management of the global economy.

Terrorism
The main aim of the course is to get the students to understand the roots of the present terrorism. Firstly, the course deals with the historical forms of terrorism (as Zealots, Assassins and Anarchist). Then the changes of the terrorism during the last 40 years are discussed. A special emphasis is put on the changes since the end of the Cold War. Here particularly the relationship between Islam and terrorism is tackled. Finally, the course tries to take a look “inside of the terroristic mind”: what makes them terrorists and what motivates them.

International Communications
This course is concerned in general with the impact of globalization on public relations. This is an interdisciplinary course and necessitates to use both micro and macro cultural lenses to analyze international communication strategies. The students are equipped with the knowledge of international communication as practiced in public diplomacy, international crisis management, global social and political movements, online grassroots activism, global news flow etc.